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Proper understanding of the risk of radiation-induced late effects for patients receiving external photon beam radiotherapy requires the determination of reliable dose–response relationships. Although significant efforts have been devoted to improving dose estimates for the study of late effects, the most often questioned explanatory variable is still the dose. In this work, based on a literature review, we provide an in-depth description of the radiotherapy dose reconstruction process for the study of late effects. In particular, we focus on the identification of the main sources of dose uncertainty involved in this process and summarise their impacts on the dose–response relationship for radiotherapy late effects. We provide a number of recommendations for making progress in estimating the uncertainties in current studies of radiotherapy late effects and reducing these uncertainties in future studies.

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References

C J Martin et al 2017 J. Radiol. Prot. 37 883

View abstract View article PDF

This paper sets out guidelines for managing radiation exposure incidents involving patients in diagnostic and interventional radiology. The work is based on collation of experiences from representatives of international and national organizations for radiologists, medical physicists, radiographers, regulators, and equipment manufacturers, derived from an International Atomic Energy Agency Technical Meeting. More serious overexposures can result in skin doses high enough to produce tissue reactions, in interventional procedures and computed tomography, most notably from perfusion studies. A major factor involved has been deficiencies in training of staff in operation of equipment and optimization techniques. The use of checklists and time outs before procedures commence, and dose alerts when critical levels are reached during procedures, can provide safeguards to reduce the risks of these effects occurring. However, unintended and accidental overexposures resulting in relatively small additional doses can take place in any diagnostic or interventional x-ray procedure and it is important to learn from errors that occur, as these may lead to increased risks of stochastic effects. Such events may involve the wrong examinations, procedural errors, or equipment faults. Guidance is given on prevention, investigation, and dose calculation for radiology exposure incidents within healthcare facilities. Responsibilities should be clearly set out in formal policies, and procedures should be in place to ensure that root causes are identified and deficiencies addressed. When an overexposure of a patient or an unintended exposure of a foetus occurs, the foetal, organ, skin, and/or effective dose may be estimated from exposure data. When doses are very low, generic values for the examination may be sufficient, but a full assessment of doses to all exposed organs and tissues may sometimes be required. The use of general terminology to describe risks from stochastic effects is recommended rather than the calculation of numerical values, as these are misleading when applied to individuals.

https://doi.org/10.1088/1361-6498/aa881e Cited by References

D J Gallacher et al 2016 J. Radiol. Prot. 36 785

The contents of is simply the crop value for :

And the contents of is just the list of movies, full paths without quotes, delimited by carriage returns:

Notice that there's no crop file for . This is because it doesn't require cropping.

For other options that won't change from input to input, e.g. , simply augment the line in the script calling :

The transcoding process is started by executing the script:

The path is first deleted from the file and then passed as an argument to the tool. To pause after returns, simply insert a blank line at the top of the file.

These examples are written in Bash and only supply crop values. But almost any scripting language can be used and any option can be changed on a per input basis. Nick Wronski has written a batch-processing wrapper for in Node.js , available here:

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What is a ratecontrol sytem? It's how a video encoder decides on the amount of bits to allocate for a specific frame.

My tool has two different ratecontrol systems available to control the size and quality of output video. The special, or default, ratecontrol system is designed to deliver consistent quality, while the average bitrate (ABR) ratecontrol system, enabled via the option, is designed to produce a predictable output size.

Both ratecontrol systems are modified versions of what is commonly called a constrained variable bitrate (CVBR) mode. Which means they both allow bitrate to vary per frame but still constrain that bitrate.

My special ratecontrol system leverages the constant quality ratecontrol system already within the x264 video encoder, an algorithm which uses a constant ratefactor (CRF) to target a specific quality instead of a bitrate.

My average bitrate (ABR) ratecontrol system modifies the ABR algorithm already within x264 which targets a specific bitrate, constraining it to produce better overall quality.

The target video bitrate for both systems is automatically determined by using the resolution of the input. For example, the default target for 1080p output is Kbps, which is about one-fifth the video bitrate found on a typical Blu-ray Disc.

While both systems deliver high quality, they sometimes have different visual characteristics.

When using , you might notice two lines in the console output containing something like this:

These are actually the settings used by my special ratecontrol system to configure the x264 video encoder within HandBrake.

This system attempts to produce the highest possible video quality near a target bitrate using a constant ratefactor (CRF) to specify quality. A CRF is represented by a number from to with lower values indicating higher quality. The special value of is for lossless output.

Unfortunately, the output bitrate is extremely unpredictable when using the x264's default CRF-based system. Typically, people pick a middle-level CRF value as their quality target and just hope for the best. This is what most of the presets built into HandBrake do, choosing a CRF of or .

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